During the period of the Sui Dynasty and the Tang Dynasty, the government still controlled the main handicraft departments and the administrative setups were more perfect. Te government-run handicraft played a leading role in the respects of scale, organization, division of labor and technology. Many products were sold abroad through tributes, grants and trading and they were also sold at home through the form of monopolized sale. The division of labor was even more elaborate. Artisans of different profession had to receive technical training and study from nine months to four years, for instance, metalsmith for four years; artisan to make musical instrument and chariot, three years; and bamboo artisan, carpenter and lacquerer, one year.
In the Sui and the Tang period, the development of folk handicrafts and the emergency of guild organization further advanced the folk handicrafts with commodity production as their purpose. In addition to farmers’ household handicrafts and the handicrafts run by bureaucratic landlord manor, folk handicrafts concentrated gradually towards the city. Handicraft workshops developed rapidly and the types of work in production involved dyeing and weaving, porcelain, lacquer ware and woodenware, gold vessel and silverware, jade ware, smelting and casting, vehicles and boats, papermaking and printing, and grain processing. In the Tang Dynasty, commercial firm organizations something like guilds also emerged to coordinate the internal relations and stipulate the regulations for production and sale, which were recognized and protected by the government. The guild organization greatly affected the social economy, improved universally the social status of the handicraftsmen and marked a new stage of development for the handicraft of
In the Sui Dynasty, the handicrafts of ceramics, dyeing and weaving, and ship-building were comparatively prominent. In the Tang Dynasty, due to the highly developed economy, the liberal state policies, and the frequent exchanges between